To meet consumer demand for fermented beverages with a wide range of flavors, as well as for quality assurance, it is important to characterize volatiles and their relationships with raw materials, microbial and fermentation processes, and the aging process. Sample preparation techniques coupled with comprehensive 2D gas chromatography (GC×GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) are proven techniques for the identification and quantification of various volatiles in fermented beverages. A few articles discuss the application of GC×GC for the measurement of fermented beverage volatiles and the problems faced in the experimental analysis. This review critically discusses each step of GC×GC-MS workflow in the specific context of fermented beverage volatiles’ research, including the most frequently applied volatile extraction techniques, GC×GC instrument setup, and data handling. The application of novel sampling techniques to shorten preparation times and increase analytical sensitivity is discussed. The pros and cons of thermal and flow modulators are evaluated, and emphasis is given to the use of polar-semipolar configurations to enhance detection limits. The most relevant Design of Experiment (DoE) strategies for GC×GC parameter optimization as well as data processing procedures are reported and discussed. Finally, some consideration of the current state of the art and future perspective, including the crucial role of AI and chemometrics

Zhang, P.; Piergiovanni, M.; Franceschi, P.; Mattivi, F.; Vrhovsek, U.; Carlin, S. (2023). Application of comprehensive 2D gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in beer and wine VOC analysis. ANALYTICA, 4 (3): 347-373. doi: 10.3390/analytica4030026 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/81275

Application of comprehensive 2D gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in beer and wine VOC analysis

Zhang, Penghan;Franceschi, Pietro;Mattivi, Fulvio;Vrhovsek, Urska;Carlin, Silvia
2023-01-01

Abstract

To meet consumer demand for fermented beverages with a wide range of flavors, as well as for quality assurance, it is important to characterize volatiles and their relationships with raw materials, microbial and fermentation processes, and the aging process. Sample preparation techniques coupled with comprehensive 2D gas chromatography (GC×GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) are proven techniques for the identification and quantification of various volatiles in fermented beverages. A few articles discuss the application of GC×GC for the measurement of fermented beverage volatiles and the problems faced in the experimental analysis. This review critically discusses each step of GC×GC-MS workflow in the specific context of fermented beverage volatiles’ research, including the most frequently applied volatile extraction techniques, GC×GC instrument setup, and data handling. The application of novel sampling techniques to shorten preparation times and increase analytical sensitivity is discussed. The pros and cons of thermal and flow modulators are evaluated, and emphasis is given to the use of polar-semipolar configurations to enhance detection limits. The most relevant Design of Experiment (DoE) strategies for GC×GC parameter optimization as well as data processing procedures are reported and discussed. Finally, some consideration of the current state of the art and future perspective, including the crucial role of AI and chemometrics
GC×GC-MS
VOC
Data processing
Settore CHIM/11 - CHIMICA E BIOTECNOLOGIA DELLE FERMENTAZIONI
2023
Zhang, P.; Piergiovanni, M.; Franceschi, P.; Mattivi, F.; Vrhovsek, U.; Carlin, S. (2023). Application of comprehensive 2D gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in beer and wine VOC analysis. ANALYTICA, 4 (3): 347-373. doi: 10.3390/analytica4030026 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/81275
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2023 A Carlin.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione editoriale (Publisher’s layout)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 1.83 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.83 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/81275
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact