Hop-derived volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their transformation products significantly impact beer flavour and aroma. Geraniol, a key monoterpene alcohol in hops, has been reported to undergo yeast-modulated biotransformation into various terpenoids during fermentation, which impacts the citrus and floral aromas of the finished beer. This study monitored the evolution of geraniol and its transformation products throughout fermentation to provide insight into differences as a function of yeast species and strain. The headspace concentration of VOCs produced during fermentation in model wort was measured using Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). In the absence of yeast, only geraniol was detected, and no terpenoid compounds were detected in geraniol-free ferments. During fermentation, the depletion of geraniol was closely followed by the detection of citronellol, citronellyl acetate and geranyl acetate. The concentration of the products and formation behaviour was yeast strain dependent. SPME-GC/MS provided confidence in compound identification. PTR-ToF-MS allowed online monitoring of these transformation products, showing when formation differed between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus yeasts. A better understanding of the ability of different yeast to biotransform hop terpenes will help brewers predict, control, and optimize the aroma of the finished beer

Roberts, R.; Khomenko, I.; Eyres, G.T.; Bremer, P.; Silcock, P.; Betta, E.; Biasioli, F. (2023). Investigation of geraniol biotransformation by commercial Saccharomyces yeast strains by two headspace techniques: solid-phase microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). FERMENTATION, 9 (3): 294. doi: 10.3390/fermentation9030294 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/79035

Investigation of geraniol biotransformation by commercial Saccharomyces yeast strains by two headspace techniques: solid-phase microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS)

Roberts, Rebecca
Primo
;
Khomenko, Iuliia;Betta, Emanuela;Biasioli, Franco
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Hop-derived volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their transformation products significantly impact beer flavour and aroma. Geraniol, a key monoterpene alcohol in hops, has been reported to undergo yeast-modulated biotransformation into various terpenoids during fermentation, which impacts the citrus and floral aromas of the finished beer. This study monitored the evolution of geraniol and its transformation products throughout fermentation to provide insight into differences as a function of yeast species and strain. The headspace concentration of VOCs produced during fermentation in model wort was measured using Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). In the absence of yeast, only geraniol was detected, and no terpenoid compounds were detected in geraniol-free ferments. During fermentation, the depletion of geraniol was closely followed by the detection of citronellol, citronellyl acetate and geranyl acetate. The concentration of the products and formation behaviour was yeast strain dependent. SPME-GC/MS provided confidence in compound identification. PTR-ToF-MS allowed online monitoring of these transformation products, showing when formation differed between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus yeasts. A better understanding of the ability of different yeast to biotransform hop terpenes will help brewers predict, control, and optimize the aroma of the finished beer
Beer
Fermentation
Geraniol
Biotransformation
SPME-GC/MS
PTR-ToF-MS
Settore AGR/15 - SCIENZE E TECNOLOGIE ALIMENTARI
2023
Roberts, R.; Khomenko, I.; Eyres, G.T.; Bremer, P.; Silcock, P.; Betta, E.; Biasioli, F. (2023). Investigation of geraniol biotransformation by commercial Saccharomyces yeast strains by two headspace techniques: solid-phase microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). FERMENTATION, 9 (3): 294. doi: 10.3390/fermentation9030294 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/79035
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