Yeasts are the key microorganisms that transform grape juice into wine, and nitrogen is an essential nutrient able to affect yeast cell growth, fermentation kinetics and wine quality. In this work, we focused on the intra- and extracellular metabolomic changes of three aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine) during alcoholic fermentation of two grape musts by two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and the sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An UPLC-MS/MS method was used to monitor 33 metabolites, and 26 of them were detected in the extracellular samples and 8 were detected in the intracellular ones. The results indicate that the most intensive metabolomic changes occurred during the logarithm cellular growth phase and that pure S. cerevisiae fermentations produced higher amounts of N-acetyl derivatives of tryptophan and tyrosine and the off-odour molecule 2-aminoacetophenone. The sequentially inoculated fermentations showed a slower evolution and a higher production of metabolites linked to the well-known plant hormone indole acetic acid (auxin). Finally, the production of sulfonated tryptophol during must fermentation was confirmed, which also may explain the bitter taste of wines produced by Torulaspora delbrueckii co-fermentations, while sulfonated indole carboxylic acid was detected for the first time in such an experimental design

Álvarez-Fernández, M.A.; Carafa, I.; Vrhovsek, U.; Arapitsas, P. (2020). Modulating wine aromatic amino acid catabolites by using Torulaspora delbrueckii in sequentially inoculated fermentations or Saccharomyces cerevisiae alone. MICROORGANISMS, 8 (9): 1349. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms8091349 handle: http://hdl.handle.net/10449/64510

Modulating wine aromatic amino acid catabolites by using Torulaspora delbrueckii in sequentially inoculated fermentations or Saccharomyces cerevisiae alone

Carafa, I.;Vrhovsek, U.;Arapitsas, P.
Ultimo
2020-01-01

Abstract

Yeasts are the key microorganisms that transform grape juice into wine, and nitrogen is an essential nutrient able to affect yeast cell growth, fermentation kinetics and wine quality. In this work, we focused on the intra- and extracellular metabolomic changes of three aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine) during alcoholic fermentation of two grape musts by two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and the sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An UPLC-MS/MS method was used to monitor 33 metabolites, and 26 of them were detected in the extracellular samples and 8 were detected in the intracellular ones. The results indicate that the most intensive metabolomic changes occurred during the logarithm cellular growth phase and that pure S. cerevisiae fermentations produced higher amounts of N-acetyl derivatives of tryptophan and tyrosine and the off-odour molecule 2-aminoacetophenone. The sequentially inoculated fermentations showed a slower evolution and a higher production of metabolites linked to the well-known plant hormone indole acetic acid (auxin). Finally, the production of sulfonated tryptophol during must fermentation was confirmed, which also may explain the bitter taste of wines produced by Torulaspora delbrueckii co-fermentations, while sulfonated indole carboxylic acid was detected for the first time in such an experimental design
Nitrogen metabolism
Chardonnay
Pinot gris
Sulfonation
Wine atypical aging
Tyrosol
Bitter taste
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts
Winemaking
Settore CHIM/10 - CHIMICA DEGLI ALIMENTI
2020
Álvarez-Fernández, M.A.; Carafa, I.; Vrhovsek, U.; Arapitsas, P. (2020). Modulating wine aromatic amino acid catabolites by using Torulaspora delbrueckii in sequentially inoculated fermentations or Saccharomyces cerevisiae alone. MICROORGANISMS, 8 (9): 1349. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms8091349 handle: http://hdl.handle.net/10449/64510
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