Transpiration per unit of leaf area is the end-product of the root-to-leaf water transport within the plant, and it is regulated by a series of morpho-physiological resistances and hierarchical signals. The rate of water transpired sustains a series of processes such as nutrient absorption and leaf evaporative cooling, with stomata being the end-valves that maintain the optimal water loss under specific degrees of evaporative demand and soil moisture conditions. Previous work provided evidence of a partial modulation of water flux following nitrogen availability linking high nitrate availability with tight stomatal control of transpiration in several species. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that stomatal control of transpiration, among others signals, is partially modulated by soil nitrate ( NO3- ) availability in grapevine, with reduced NO3- availability (alkaline soil pH, reduced fertilization, and distancing NO3- source) associated with decreased water-use efficiency and higher transpiration. We observed a general trend when NO3- was limiting with plants increasing either stomatal conductance or root-shoot ratio in four independent experiments with strong associations between leaf water status, stomatal behavior, root aquaporins expression, and xylem sap pH. Carbon and oxygen isotopic signatures confirm the proximal measurements, suggesting the robustness of the signal that persists over weeks and under different gradients of NO3- availability and leaf nitrogen content. Nighttime stomatal conductance was unaffected by NO3- manipulation treatments, while application of high vapor pressure deficit conditions nullifies the differences between treatments. Genotypic variation for transpiration increase under limited NO3- availability was observed between rootstocks indicating that breeding (e.g., for high soil pH tolerance) unintentionally selected for enhanced mass flow nutrient acquisition under restrictive or nutrient-buffered conditions. We provide evidence of a series of specific traits modulated by NO3- availability and suggest that NO3- fertilization is a potential candidate for optimizing grapevine water-use efficiency and root exploration under the climate-change scenario.

Faralli, M.; Bianchedi, P.L.; Moser, C.; Bontempo, L.; Bertamini, M. (2023-03). Nitrogen control of transpiration in grapevine. PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM, 175 (2): e13906. doi: 10.1111/ppl.13906 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/79555

Nitrogen control of transpiration in grapevine

Faralli, Michele
Primo
;
Bianchedi, Pier Luigi;Moser, Claudio;Bontempo, Luana;Bertamini, Massimo
Ultimo
2023-03-01

Abstract

Transpiration per unit of leaf area is the end-product of the root-to-leaf water transport within the plant, and it is regulated by a series of morpho-physiological resistances and hierarchical signals. The rate of water transpired sustains a series of processes such as nutrient absorption and leaf evaporative cooling, with stomata being the end-valves that maintain the optimal water loss under specific degrees of evaporative demand and soil moisture conditions. Previous work provided evidence of a partial modulation of water flux following nitrogen availability linking high nitrate availability with tight stomatal control of transpiration in several species. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that stomatal control of transpiration, among others signals, is partially modulated by soil nitrate ( NO3- ) availability in grapevine, with reduced NO3- availability (alkaline soil pH, reduced fertilization, and distancing NO3- source) associated with decreased water-use efficiency and higher transpiration. We observed a general trend when NO3- was limiting with plants increasing either stomatal conductance or root-shoot ratio in four independent experiments with strong associations between leaf water status, stomatal behavior, root aquaporins expression, and xylem sap pH. Carbon and oxygen isotopic signatures confirm the proximal measurements, suggesting the robustness of the signal that persists over weeks and under different gradients of NO3- availability and leaf nitrogen content. Nighttime stomatal conductance was unaffected by NO3- manipulation treatments, while application of high vapor pressure deficit conditions nullifies the differences between treatments. Genotypic variation for transpiration increase under limited NO3- availability was observed between rootstocks indicating that breeding (e.g., for high soil pH tolerance) unintentionally selected for enhanced mass flow nutrient acquisition under restrictive or nutrient-buffered conditions. We provide evidence of a series of specific traits modulated by NO3- availability and suggest that NO3- fertilization is a potential candidate for optimizing grapevine water-use efficiency and root exploration under the climate-change scenario.
Vitis vinifera L
Stomatal conductance
Mineral nutrition
Nitrogen
Settore AGR/03 - ARBORICOLTURA GENERALE E COLTIVAZIONI ARBOREE
mar-2023
Faralli, M.; Bianchedi, P.L.; Moser, C.; Bontempo, L.; Bertamini, M. (2023-03). Nitrogen control of transpiration in grapevine. PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM, 175 (2): e13906. doi: 10.1111/ppl.13906 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/79555
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