Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) is an aromatic herb widely used in the food industry, with several commercial cultivars available with different qualitative characteristics. Commercial cultivars are usually preferred over landraces due to their higher yield and also the lack of improved landraces than can be commercialized. In Greece, however, traditional dill landraces are cultivated by local communities. Many are conserved in the Greek Gene Bank and the aim here was to investigate and compare the morphological, genetic, and chemical biodiversity of twenty-two Greek landraces and nine modern/commercial cultivars. Multivariate analysis of the morphological descriptors, molecular markers, and essential oil and polyphenol composition revealed that the Greek landraces were clearly distinguished compared with modern cultivars at the level of phenological, molecular and chemical traits. Landraces were typically taller, with larger umbels, denser foliage, and larger leaves. Plant height, density of foliage, density of feathering as well as aroma characteristics were desirable traits observed for some landraces, such as T538/06 and GRC-1348/04, which were similar or superior to those of some commercial cultivars. Polymorphic loci for inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and start codon targeted (SCoT) molecular markers were 76.47% and 72.41% for landraces, and 68.24% and 43.10% for the modern cultivars, respectively. Genetic divergence was shown, but not complete isolation, indicating that some gene flow may have occurred between landraces and cultivars. The major constituent in all dill leaf essential oils was α-phellandrene (54.42–70.25%). Landraces had a higher α-phellandrene and dill ether content than cultivars. Two dill landraces were rich in chlorogenic acid, the main polyphenolic compound determined. The study highlighted for the first-time Greek landraces with desirable characteristics regarding quality, yield, and harvest time suitable for breeding programs to develop new dill cultivars with superior features

Kadoglidou, K.; Cook, C.; Boutsika, A.; Sarrou, E.; Mellidou, I.; Aidonidou, C.; Grigoriadis, I.; Angeli, A.; Martens, S.; Georgiadou, V.; Moysiadis, T.; Ralli, P.; Mylonas, I.; Tourvas, N.; Michailidis, M.; Kalivas, A.; Maloupa, E.; Ganopoulos, I.; Xanthopoulou, A. (2023-03-08). Evaluation of a dill (Anethum graveolens L.) gene bank germplasm collection using multivariate analysis of morphological traits, molecular genotyping and chemical composition to identify novel genotypes for plant breeding. PEERJ, 11: e15043. doi: 10.7717/peerj.15043 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/73334

Evaluation of a dill (Anethum graveolens L.) gene bank germplasm collection using multivariate analysis of morphological traits, molecular genotyping and chemical composition to identify novel genotypes for plant breeding

Angeli, A.;Martens, S.;
2023-03-08

Abstract

Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) is an aromatic herb widely used in the food industry, with several commercial cultivars available with different qualitative characteristics. Commercial cultivars are usually preferred over landraces due to their higher yield and also the lack of improved landraces than can be commercialized. In Greece, however, traditional dill landraces are cultivated by local communities. Many are conserved in the Greek Gene Bank and the aim here was to investigate and compare the morphological, genetic, and chemical biodiversity of twenty-two Greek landraces and nine modern/commercial cultivars. Multivariate analysis of the morphological descriptors, molecular markers, and essential oil and polyphenol composition revealed that the Greek landraces were clearly distinguished compared with modern cultivars at the level of phenological, molecular and chemical traits. Landraces were typically taller, with larger umbels, denser foliage, and larger leaves. Plant height, density of foliage, density of feathering as well as aroma characteristics were desirable traits observed for some landraces, such as T538/06 and GRC-1348/04, which were similar or superior to those of some commercial cultivars. Polymorphic loci for inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and start codon targeted (SCoT) molecular markers were 76.47% and 72.41% for landraces, and 68.24% and 43.10% for the modern cultivars, respectively. Genetic divergence was shown, but not complete isolation, indicating that some gene flow may have occurred between landraces and cultivars. The major constituent in all dill leaf essential oils was α-phellandrene (54.42–70.25%). Landraces had a higher α-phellandrene and dill ether content than cultivars. Two dill landraces were rich in chlorogenic acid, the main polyphenolic compound determined. The study highlighted for the first-time Greek landraces with desirable characteristics regarding quality, yield, and harvest time suitable for breeding programs to develop new dill cultivars with superior features
Dill
Anethum graveolens
Essential oil
Polyphenolics
Genetic diversity
Greek Gene Bank
Settore AGR/07 - GENETICA AGRARIA
8-mar-2023
Kadoglidou, K.; Cook, C.; Boutsika, A.; Sarrou, E.; Mellidou, I.; Aidonidou, C.; Grigoriadis, I.; Angeli, A.; Martens, S.; Georgiadou, V.; Moysiadis, T.; Ralli, P.; Mylonas, I.; Tourvas, N.; Michailidis, M.; Kalivas, A.; Maloupa, E.; Ganopoulos, I.; Xanthopoulou, A. (2023-03-08). Evaluation of a dill (Anethum graveolens L.) gene bank germplasm collection using multivariate analysis of morphological traits, molecular genotyping and chemical composition to identify novel genotypes for plant breeding. PEERJ, 11: e15043. doi: 10.7717/peerj.15043 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/73334
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