Background: Flavonoids are plant specialised metabolites, which derive from phenylalanine and acetate metabolism. They possess a variety of beneficial characteristics for plants and humans. Several modification steps in the synthesis of tricyclic flavonoids cause for the amazing diversity of flavonoids in plants. The 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs) flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, synonym FHT), flavonol synthase (FLS) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS, synonym leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX)), catalyse oxidative modifications to the central C ring. They are highly similar and have been shown to catalyse, at least in part, each other's reactions. FLS and ANS have been identified as bifunctional enzymes in many species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, stressing the capability of plants to bypass missing or mutated reaction steps on the way to flavonoid production. However, little is known about such bypass reactions and the flavonoid composition of plants lacking all three central flavonoid 2-ODDs. Results: To address this issue, we generated a f3h/fls1/ans mutant, as well as the corresponding double mutants and investigated the flavonoid composition of this mutant collection. The f3h/fls1/ans mutant was further characterised at the genomic level by analysis of a nanopore DNA sequencing generated genome sequence assembly and at the transcriptomic level by RNA-Seq analysis. The mutant collection established, including the novel double mutants f3h/fls1 and f3h/ans, was used to validate and analyse the multifunctionalities of F3H, FLS1, and ANS in planta. Metabolite analyses revealed the accumulation of eriodictyol and additional glycosylated derivatives in mutants carrying the f3h mutant allele, resulting from the conversion of naringenin to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) activity. Conclusions: We describe the in planta multifunctionality of the three central flavonoid 2-ODDs from A. thaliana and identify a bypass in the f3h/fls1/ans triple mutant that leads to the formation of eriodictyol derivatives. As (homo-)eriodictyols are known as bitter taste maskers, the annotated eriodictyol (derivatives) and in particular the observations made on their in planta production, could provide valuable insights for the creation of novel food supplements.

Schilbert, H.M.; Busche, M.; Saez Pulgar, V.S.; Angeli, A.; Weisshaar, B.; Martens, S.; Stracke, R. (2024). Generation and characterisation of an Arabidopsis thaliana f3h/fls1/ans triple mutant that accumulates eriodictyol derivatives. BMC PLANT BIOLOGY, 24 (1): 99. doi: 10.1186/s12870-024-04787-1 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/84195

Generation and characterisation of an Arabidopsis thaliana f3h/fls1/ans triple mutant that accumulates eriodictyol derivatives

Saez Pulgar, Vania Stephanie;Angeli, Andrea;Martens, Stefan;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Flavonoids are plant specialised metabolites, which derive from phenylalanine and acetate metabolism. They possess a variety of beneficial characteristics for plants and humans. Several modification steps in the synthesis of tricyclic flavonoids cause for the amazing diversity of flavonoids in plants. The 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs) flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, synonym FHT), flavonol synthase (FLS) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS, synonym leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX)), catalyse oxidative modifications to the central C ring. They are highly similar and have been shown to catalyse, at least in part, each other's reactions. FLS and ANS have been identified as bifunctional enzymes in many species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, stressing the capability of plants to bypass missing or mutated reaction steps on the way to flavonoid production. However, little is known about such bypass reactions and the flavonoid composition of plants lacking all three central flavonoid 2-ODDs. Results: To address this issue, we generated a f3h/fls1/ans mutant, as well as the corresponding double mutants and investigated the flavonoid composition of this mutant collection. The f3h/fls1/ans mutant was further characterised at the genomic level by analysis of a nanopore DNA sequencing generated genome sequence assembly and at the transcriptomic level by RNA-Seq analysis. The mutant collection established, including the novel double mutants f3h/fls1 and f3h/ans, was used to validate and analyse the multifunctionalities of F3H, FLS1, and ANS in planta. Metabolite analyses revealed the accumulation of eriodictyol and additional glycosylated derivatives in mutants carrying the f3h mutant allele, resulting from the conversion of naringenin to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) activity. Conclusions: We describe the in planta multifunctionality of the three central flavonoid 2-ODDs from A. thaliana and identify a bypass in the f3h/fls1/ans triple mutant that leads to the formation of eriodictyol derivatives. As (homo-)eriodictyols are known as bitter taste maskers, the annotated eriodictyol (derivatives) and in particular the observations made on their in planta production, could provide valuable insights for the creation of novel food supplements.
2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases
Enzyme promiscuity
Flavonoid biosynthesis
Flavonoids
Multifunctionality
Triple 2-ODD mutant
Settore AGR/07 - GENETICA AGRARIA
2024
Schilbert, H.M.; Busche, M.; Saez Pulgar, V.S.; Angeli, A.; Weisshaar, B.; Martens, S.; Stracke, R. (2024). Generation and characterisation of an Arabidopsis thaliana f3h/fls1/ans triple mutant that accumulates eriodictyol derivatives. BMC PLANT BIOLOGY, 24 (1): 99. doi: 10.1186/s12870-024-04787-1 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/84195
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