While the demand for Spirulina dietary supplements continues to grow, product inspection in terms of authenticity and safety remains limited. This study used the stable isotope ratios of light elements (C, N, S, H, and O) and the elemental composition to characterize Spirulina dietary supplements available on the Slovenian market. Forty-six samples were labelled as originating from the EU (1), non-EU (6), Hawaii (2), Italy (2), Japan (1), Portugal (2), Taiwan (3), India (4), and China (16), and nine products were without a declared origin. Stable isotope ratio median values were –23.9‰ (–26.0 to –21.8‰) for δ13C, 4.80‰ (1.30–8.02‰) for δ15N, 11.0‰ (6.79–12.7‰) for δ34S, –173‰ (– 190 to –158‰) for δ2H, and 17.2‰ (15.8–18.8‰) for δ18O. Multivariate statistical analyses achieved a reliable differentiation of Hawaiian, Italian, and Portuguese (100%) samples and a good separation of Chinese samples, while the separation of Indian and Taiwanese samples was less successful, but still notable. The study showed that differences in isotopic and elemental composition are indicative of sample origins, cultivation and processing methods, and environmental conditions such that, when combined, they provide a promising tool for determining the authenticity of Spirulina products

Rutar, J.M.; Strojnik, L.; Nečemer, M.; Bontempo, L.; Ogrinc, N. (2023). Determining the authenticity of Spirulina dietary supplements based on stable isotope and elemental composition. FOODS, 12 (3): 562. doi: 10.3390/foods12030562 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/78355

Determining the authenticity of Spirulina dietary supplements based on stable isotope and elemental composition

Bontempo, Luana;
2023-01-01

Abstract

While the demand for Spirulina dietary supplements continues to grow, product inspection in terms of authenticity and safety remains limited. This study used the stable isotope ratios of light elements (C, N, S, H, and O) and the elemental composition to characterize Spirulina dietary supplements available on the Slovenian market. Forty-six samples were labelled as originating from the EU (1), non-EU (6), Hawaii (2), Italy (2), Japan (1), Portugal (2), Taiwan (3), India (4), and China (16), and nine products were without a declared origin. Stable isotope ratio median values were –23.9‰ (–26.0 to –21.8‰) for δ13C, 4.80‰ (1.30–8.02‰) for δ15N, 11.0‰ (6.79–12.7‰) for δ34S, –173‰ (– 190 to –158‰) for δ2H, and 17.2‰ (15.8–18.8‰) for δ18O. Multivariate statistical analyses achieved a reliable differentiation of Hawaiian, Italian, and Portuguese (100%) samples and a good separation of Chinese samples, while the separation of Indian and Taiwanese samples was less successful, but still notable. The study showed that differences in isotopic and elemental composition are indicative of sample origins, cultivation and processing methods, and environmental conditions such that, when combined, they provide a promising tool for determining the authenticity of Spirulina products
Spirulina
Arthrospira spp.
Dietary supplements
Stable isotope ratio
Elements
Authenticity
Quality
Geographical origin
Settore CHIM/10 - CHIMICA DEGLI ALIMENTI
2023
Rutar, J.M.; Strojnik, L.; Nečemer, M.; Bontempo, L.; Ogrinc, N. (2023). Determining the authenticity of Spirulina dietary supplements based on stable isotope and elemental composition. FOODS, 12 (3): 562. doi: 10.3390/foods12030562 handle: https://hdl.handle.net/10449/78355
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